Bakhtar University

Bakhtar University Journal

About the Journal

Aims and Scope

Editorial Board

Submission Guidelines

Publication Policy


About the Journal

With the emphasis that bakhtar scientific-research quarterly journal has on preserving the sanctity of the realm and thoughts, we have tried to take a step forward by respecting the diversity of views and theories, and bringing the current and future generation closer to the human race as it deserves.
The journal issue of this scientific work is devoted to different subjects, in other words, different scientific disciplines. The articles issue is linked to areas of sociology, literature, communication, management, political science, law, journalism, political sciences, and history.
We expect all dear elites to present scientific papers and their scientific theories and critiques to keep us and the academic community in the process of moving towards a more humane future.
Dr. Zabihullah Asadi
Research Director

Aims and Scope

Main Objective

The main goal of the BURJ is making use of available capabilities and facilities for academic, cultural, political, economic and social reconstruction and development of the country and on the other hand, cooperation with national and international institutions to improve academic, managerial and leadership situation.


The BURJ is planning to train researchers, authors and scientific translators and ultimately, nurturing the future leaders for society.
On the other hand, introducing the expert cadres to Afghan society and world society by articles and academic works like, articles, books and research, so that these experienced cadres outline the macro policies in national level.

Editorial Board


Prof. Zabihullah Asadi (Ph.D)
Professor of Sociology


Prof. Omid Afghan (Ph.D)
Professor of Sociology


Dr. Ahmad Shah Vadud Ghaznavi (Ph.D)
Lecture- Hydrology and Geology
Bakhtar University

Dr. Eng. Mohammad Omar Temori
Dean of Civil Engineering Faculty
Bakhktar University
Dr. Dena Mohseny
Dr. Dawood Sokhanwar
Dr. Abdul Jabar Sapand
Dr. Baytrhaman Rodwal
Dr. Sayed Nooruddin Alavi
Dr. Sayed Hassan Vera
Dr. Mohamad Osman Rohany
Dr. Abid Hussain
Dr. Adil Rasool
DR. Mohd Asif Shah
Dr. Abdul Bari Rahman
Dr. Baqer Rezay
Dr. Sayed jafar Ahmady
Dr. Sayed Abdul Samad Moshtaq
Dr. Farooq Bashar
Dr. Nizamuddin

Submission Guidelines

In order to publish your scientific-research articles in Bakhtar Scientific Journal, please pay attention to specific international criteria and policies and internal policies of Bakhtar University and arrange your article according to the above mentioned criteria.
The article should be prepared according to the following instructions:

Publishing ethics
Make sure your chosen journal is not published elsewhere. Show informed consent and provide guarantees that the rights of participants are protected. Warning of bias and compliance with guidelines for accurate and thorough reporting of research. Notify the journal if you find an error in your research.
Article profile page
Cover page only article title, author name, official addresses, phone / fax number and email address sent. The position of the author (s), the name of the university or research institute in which the author (s) are engaged in research should be mentioned on a separate page.
Title of Journal
It should be short and comprehensive and should not exceed 20 words and should be brought at the top of the first page.
(In the title page, abstract and in the text of the article, the name and surname and other details related to the author (s) should not be mentioned in any way).
The summary should be short, concise, and comprehensive and should not exceed 200 to 300 words.
The abstract should be on the same page after the title.

Make a short list of keywords at the end of the abstract so that if your article is published in a journal, indexing is quick and easy.
Mentioning keywords will help other researchers find your work. Keywords should ideally be phrases of 4-6 words; single word keywords are acceptable, but they may lead to many false matches.


It includes the introduction of the subject under study, the necessity of conducting research and reviewing scientific sources and previous researches based on published documents.

Figures, Tables, Boxes

Please consult the APA Manual of Style (chap. 3 in the 16th edition) for detailed suggestions on creating effective figures and tables.

  • Figures, tables, and boxes are designed elements handled separately from the main text. Please submit them as individual files, labeled according to the file-naming convention described earlier (e.g., fig1-1.jpg, fig2-4.tif, fig10-37.tif, table3-1.doc, and box4-4.doc).
  • Figures should be submitted as graphics files in an approved format, and meeting the minimum size and resolution requirements. See the separate handout “Art Preparation Guidelines” for a list of formats we accept and our minimum-quality requirements.
  • Figure captions should be gathered in a single Word text file so they can be edited. Do not include a caption as part of the graphic itself.
  • Tables and boxes should be submitted as Word text files, with a corresponding number and title above each
  • Figures, tables, and boxes should be directly relevant to the text narrative and each must be cited in the text, either directly or parenthetically.

Materials and methods

It includes the introduction of the pilot project and the distribution of the equipment and materials used and a complete description of the review methods, but at the same time there is no need for a complete description of the adapted methods and only mentioning the principles and references is sufficient.

Results and Discussion

Articles must be written in MS word, Times Roman font and must be submitted in hard copy only.
The distance between the lines is single.
Author name should not appear on any other page.
The total volume of an article is between 3,000 and 7,000 words for research and review articles and between 1,500 and 3,000 words for a case report that introduces a case or cases that are rarely seen.
Because this section includes text, tables, pictures and diagrams and the article is analyzed, evaluated and discussed here; the titles of the tables should be concise and clear, so that there is no need to refer to the text of the article and be given at the top of the table. Figures, pictures and diagrams should be sent in appropriate quality and clearly, necessarily in black and white with the relevant file.
Description of photos, pictures and diagrams below.


In conclusion, the summary and the next steps should be considered.
Here are some things to look for when selecting yours.
Summarize and conclude, state the main argument, and present the main conclusions and recommendations. Describe how your new findings / framework can be put into practice.
Explain the implications of further research.
Tell us how much your main questions have been answered.
Highlight the limitations of your research.

Reference List

References are listed in alphabetical order according to surname and initials of first author.
Use the following style:


Rivera, A. R. V., Wyneken, J. and Blob, R. W. (2011). Forelimb kinematics and motor patterns of swimming loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): are motor patterns conserved in the evolution of new locomotor strategies? J. Exp. Biol. 214, 3314-3323.


Hochachka, P. W. and Somero, G. N. (2002). Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Book chapter

Feller, G. (2008). Enzyme function at low temperatures in psychrophilic. In Protein Adaptation in Extremophiles (ed. K. S. Siddiqui and T. Thomas), pp. 35-69. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Preprint server

Baillie-Johnson, P., van den Brink, S. C., Balayo, T., Turner, D. A. and Martinez Arias, A. (2014). Generation of aggregates of mouse ES cells that show symmetry breaking, polarization and emergent collective behavior in vitro. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/005215.

PhD thesis

Jones, A. R. (2016). Title of thesis. PhD thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Dataset with persistent identifier Zheng, L.-Y., Guo, X.-S., He, B., Sun, L.-J., Peng, Y. and Dong, S.-S. (2011). Genome data from sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). GigaScience Database.


When quoting the source, you should also add the page number to the source in the text, or use quotes mark “ “ when quoting from a book or author.


A standard source reference begins with the author’s surname, followed by a comma, then the initial(s) of his or her first name. If there are multiple authors, place a comma between each of the author names and an ampersand (“&”) before the last author’s name. If there are more than eight authors, list the first six followed by an ellipses “…” followed by the last author.
There should always be a period after the author name(s)
One Authors
When there is One Author: (Ahmad, 2000)

2- tow authors

When there are two authors, separate their last names with an ampersand (&), or with the word ‘and’ when they appear in the running text.
Research shows that there is a great need for … (Ahmad & Mohammad, 2014). Ahmad and Mohammad (2014) write that there is a great need for …

3-5 authors

When there are three or more authors, separate their last names using commas. The last two authors’ last names should be separated by both a comma and an ampersand. Recent research suggests that there is … (Ahmad, Mohammad, Ali, & Hamid, 2014). Ahmad, Mohammad, Ali, and Hamid (2014) argue that … If you cite the same source again, to save space, you shorten the citation. Instead of including all the authors’ names, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” (Meaning “and others”). In this research, many participants made use of … (Hasib et al., 2014). 6 or more authors If a source has six or more authors, use the shortened version from the first citation. Lunette et al. (2015) discuss the …

Organization as author

When a source does not list an individual author, it can often be attributed to an organization instead. According to new research … (Amazon, 2016).
Guidelines specified in the Publication Manual of (APA style) must be followed.

Publication Policy

1. Vision

“To establish the BU as a leading research University in Afghanistan and the Kabul region.”
Obtain research degree awarding powers

2. Mission
  • Develop research partnerships with quality research led institutions and research establishments
  • Encourage efforts in acquiring research-funded projects and collaboration with national and international funding agencies
  • Publish research papers in refereed journals of high impact factor.
  • Organize and host national and international workshops and conferences
  • Encourage‎research activities ‎for‎ both postgraduate undergraduates’‎students
  • Attract leading academics to conferences and workshops
3 Purpose

This policy establishes the research environment within which academic staff, postgraduate and undergraduate research students carry out their Research. It also provides a main framework for the development and implementation of all research at all departments of Bakhtar University.

4 Organizational Scope

This is only management sciences department of Bakhtar University statue.

5 Definitions

For purposes of this statute, unless otherwise stated, the following definitions shall apply:
5.1 Chancellor:The person in Bakhtar University is responsible for the approval of all administrative decisions and for all research matters related to the postgraduate and undergraduate degree programs of candidates within their faculties.
5.2 Research DirectorThe person heading Bakhtar University Research Department.
5.3 Academic Staff: Includes all staff that has a contractual obligation to carry out Research.
5.4 Board of Directors: The governing body of the Bakhtar University.
5.5 Scholar: Person employed by the University to undertake Research
5.6 BURD:Bakhtar University Research Department.
5.7 DRC: Department Research Committee.
5.8 Research: Research is original, independent investigation undertaken to contribute to knowledge and understanding and, in case of some disciplines, cultural innovation or aesthetic refinement. Research typically involves inquiry of an experimental or critical nature driven by hypothesis or intellectual positions capable of rigorous assessment by experts in a given discipline. Research includes work of direct relevance to the specific needs of Afghan, communities, government, industry and commerce. In some disciplines, Research may be embodied in the form of artistic works, performances or designs that lead to new or substantially improved insights. Research may include: contributions to the intellectual underpinning of subjects and disciplines (for example, dictionaries and scholarly editions) the use of existing knowledge or processes the synthesis and analysis of previous Research to the extent that it is new and creative. Research findings must be open to scrutiny or formal evaluation by experts within the social sciences field. This may be achieved through various forms of dissemination including, but not limited to, publication, public presentation, or provision of confidential reports. Research does not include activities that are part of routine standard practice or outputs that do not embody original Research. This excludes:

  • Routine testing
  • Data-collection
  • Preparation for teaching where it does not embody original Research
  • The legal and administrative aspects of commercialization activities
  • Professional activities that do not embody original Research.

6. Policy Content and Guidelines
6.1 Requirement to Undertake Research

a) Each scholar will carry out independent Research that is appropriate to their discipline.
In doing so they will, individually or in collaboration with colleagues:

  • supervise Research students;
  • broadly disseminate Research results (i.e. through more than one medium or one audience) including through their teaching practices and, where appropriate, protect the results of their Research;
  • be active within appropriate professional and discipline communities;
  • Contribute to the Research environment and culture of Bakhtar University such as mentoring, engagement in new Research initiatives and strengthening the Research infrastructure.

b) The requirement to undertake Research is a career expectation and will be balanced with the other obligations of academic staff including teaching and administrative responsibilities.

6.2 Statutory and Ethics Obligations

a) Academic staff and students are required to carry out their Research in compliance with the BURD and DRC’s obligations under legislation, ethical and contractual obligations.
b) Research topic that a student is going to undertake for research must get prior approval from the Department research committee (DRC).
c) All DRC’s, of the University are required to make themselves aware and follow the research format provided by the BURD.

6.3 Research Management

Policy and advice in Research matters is coordinated through BURD:
a) BURD, chaired by the Research Director, is the University’s senior research management body. It advises and informs Academic research staff on Research strategies to be pursued, develops and reviews progress in these areas.
b) Department Research committee (DRC) and research supervisor are required to inform the BURD about their progress. Research supervisor are expected to comply with and oversee the implementation of BURD Research policies.
c) The Dean and Head of Department provide support and services to DRC, this support include but not limited to:

  • Assisting DRC with coordinating the activities of University and department monitoring external Research policy developments.
  • Providing professional development opportunities for staff to enhance their Research performance.

6.4 Resources in Support of Research
  • University Research Fund
    1. The general principle governing the allocation of all Research funding in the University is that it is an investment intended to maximize the range of outcomes that the University expects to result from staff and student Research.
    2. Each research supervisor is paid 3000Af per thesis completion.
    3. All research contracted by an external party is administered and funded by the BURD.
6.5 Research Planning

All the DRC’s are required to develop and implement their Research plan that is consistent with the BURD Strategy and the University Strategic Plan.

6.6 Evaluation and Monitoring of Performance

(a) The BURD has responsibility for the evaluation of the DRC performance. Annually the Alignment, Outcomes and Evaluation of the DRC’s will update the chancellor about their performance.
(b) BURD is required to annually complete the research supervisor performance appraisal through which DRC’s will evaluate their Research performance.
(c) DRC is required to supply full and accurate details of their Research outputs as required by the BURD. This shall be done at least annually and the information will be shared with chancellor of Bakhtar Uniiversity.
(d) The BURD will publish an annual list of staff and student publications in the categories.

6.7 Postgraduate Student Research

(a) BURD, Dean, Heads of Department and the DRC’s are responsible for ensuring that the management of Postgraduate research degrees complies with the University and ministry of higher education statutes, policies and procedures
(b) BURD is responsible for ensuring that DRC’s make appropriate budgetary provision for the support of postgraduate student Research.

6.8 Publication and Intellectual Property

(a) Research outputs may be withheld by the BURD where “good reason” exists.
(b) To the extent permitted by law, Research outputs may be embargoed as required by the University’s Intellectual Property Policy.
(c) BURD and DRC’s are required to comply with the University’s Intellectual Property Policy.

6.9 Benchmarks for Evaluating Research Performance

In order to evaluate the proposed plan and measure the outcomes of the BU research activities, standardized international benchmarks need to be employed. The following define some of the benchmarks selected for such evaluation. The proposed monitoring bodies, identified, shall be entrusted with the responsibility of evaluating these benchmarks on a regular interval and reporting to the appropriate committees within the BU organizational system. The amount of peer reviewed journal publications, international conference publications, books and book chapters and number of students (Graduate and postgraduate) completed their research thesis shall constitute one of the basic measures of research outcomes of the BU. The BU shall maintain an up-to-date publication list that is categorized as indicated above, i.e., journal papers, conference papers, books and book chapters. Proper statistics could be employed in gauging the rate of achievements on a yearly basis. Such statistics and their time variation could be employed in reflecting the research achievements throughout the developmental stages of the BU.

6.10 BURD characteristics

(a) The University establishes research department to raise the Research profile of the Bakhtar University, focus strengths in areas where there is (or the department wishes to develop) a concentration of Research excellence (including areas of applied Research). BURD helps position and promote the DRC areas of research excellence and build the department’s Research reputation.
(b) BURD is.

  1. High quality and competitive, and will include involvement of nationally recognized researchers.
  2. Consistent with the strategic interests of the University
  3. Expected to deliver outcomes those are established by university.
Research Director (BURD)

Bakhtar University